Yes, anyone with temporary or permanent residency in Colombia must enroll in either an ESP health insurance plan or SISBEN.
EPS, which stands for "Entidad Promotora de Salud," is one type of government sponsored health insurance available in Colombia. Even if you choose to purchase private expat health insurance, you must be enrolled in an EPS (unless you qualify for SISBEN, which is for lower income and homeless residents). The cost of EPS health insurance is extremely low and many expats use their IPS (health center assigned by your EPS) for basic care and go to private doctors using private health insurance for other issues and chronic conditions. "EPS is the [primary] Public Health system in Colombia and mandatory for all residents. It's not about being eligible, by law you have to have it. The cost is not based on age but rather on your income," said one expat.